管理工具---Maven系列(零)Maven

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拿来即用主义

记得把本地仓库位置改为自己的库位置

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
 
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    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
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software distributed under the License is distributed on an
"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations
under the License.
-->
 
<!--
 | This is the configuration file for Maven. It can be specified at two levels:
 |
 |  1. User Level. This settings.xml file provides configuration for a single user,
 |                 and is normally provided in ${user.home}/.m2/settings.xml.
 |
 |                 NOTE: This location can be overridden with the CLI option:
 |
 |                 -s /path/to/user/settings.xml
 |
 |  2. Global Level. This settings.xml file provides configuration for all Maven
 |                 users on a machine (assuming they're all using the same Maven
 |                 installation). It's normally provided in
 |                 ${maven.home}/conf/settings.xml.
 |
 |                 NOTE: This location can be overridden with the CLI option:
 |
 |                 -gs /path/to/global/settings.xml
 |
 | The sections in this sample file are intended to give you a running start at
 | getting the most out of your Maven installation. Where appropriate, the default
 | values (values used when the setting is not specified) are provided.
 |
 |-->
<settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"
          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
          xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/settings-1.0.0.xsd">
    <!-- localRepository
     | The path to the local repository maven will use to store artifacts.
     |
     | Default: ${user.home}/.m2/repository
    <localRepository>/path/to/local/repo</localRepository>
    -->
    <!--自定义本地仓库路径-->
    <localRepository>E:\JAVA\Maven</localRepository>
    <!-- interactiveMode
     | This will determine whether maven prompts you when it needs input. If set to false,
     | maven will use a sensible default value, perhaps based on some other setting, for
     | the parameter in question.
     |
     | Default: true
    <interactiveMode>true</interactiveMode>
    -->
 
    <!-- offline
     | Determines whether maven should attempt to connect to the network when executing a build.
     | This will have an effect on artifact downloads, artifact deployment, and others.
     |
     | Default: false
    <offline>false</offline>
    -->
 
    <!-- pluginGroups
     | This is a list of additional group identifiers that will be searched when resolving plugins by their prefix, i.e.
     | when invoking a command line like "mvn prefix:goal". Maven will automatically add the group identifiers
     | "org.apache.maven.plugins" and "org.codehaus.mojo" if these are not already contained in the list.
     |-->
    <pluginGroups>
        <!-- pluginGroup
         | Specifies a further group identifier to use for plugin lookup.
        <pluginGroup>com.your.plugins</pluginGroup>
        -->
    </pluginGroups>
 
    <!-- proxies
     | This is a list of proxies which can be used on this machine to connect to the network.
     | Unless otherwise specified (by system property or command-line switch), the first proxy
     | specification in this list marked as active will be used.
     |-->
    <proxies>
        <!-- proxy
         | Specification for one proxy, to be used in connecting to the network.
         |
        <proxy>
          <id>optional</id>
          <active>true</active>
          <protocol>http</protocol>
          <username>proxyuser</username>
          <password>proxypass</password>
          <host>proxy.host.net</host>
          <port>80</port>
          <nonProxyHosts>local.net|some.host.com</nonProxyHosts>
        </proxy>
        -->
    </proxies>
 
    <!-- servers
     | This is a list of authentication profiles, keyed by the server-id used within the system.
     | Authentication profiles can be used whenever maven must make a connection to a remote server.
     |-->
    <servers>
        <!-- server
         | Specifies the authentication information to use when connecting to a particular server, identified by
         | a unique name within the system (referred to by the 'id' attribute below).
         |
         | NOTE: You should either specify username/password OR privateKey/passphrase, since these pairings are
         |       used together.
         |
        <server>
          <id>deploymentRepo</id>
          <username>repouser</username>
          <password>repopwd</password>
        </server>
        -->
 
        <!-- Another sample, using keys to authenticate.
        <server>
          <id>siteServer</id>
          <privateKey>/path/to/private/key</privateKey>
          <passphrase>optional; leave empty if not used.</passphrase>
        </server>
        -->
    </servers>
 
    <!-- mirrors
     | This is a list of mirrors to be used in downloading artifacts from remote repositories.
     |
     | It works like this: a POM may declare a repository to use in resolving certain artifacts.
     | However, this repository may have problems with heavy traffic at times, so people have mirrored
     | it to several places.
     |
     | That repository definition will have a unique id, so we can create a mirror reference for that
     | repository, to be used as an alternate download site. The mirror site will be the preferred
     | server for that repository.
     |-->
    <mirrors>
        <!-- mirror
         | Specifies a repository mirror site to use instead of a given repository. The repository that
         | this mirror serves has an ID that matches the mirrorOf element of this mirror. IDs are used
         | for inheritance and direct lookup purposes, and must be unique across the set of mirrors.
         |
        <mirror>
          <id>mirrorId</id>
          <mirrorOf>repositoryId</mirrorOf>
          <name>Human Readable Name for this Mirror.</name>
          <url>http://my.repository.com/repo/path</url>
        </mirror>
         -->
 
        <mirror>
            <id>alimaven-central</id>
            <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
            <name>aliyun maven</name>
            <url>http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/repositories/central/</url>
        </mirror>
        <mirror>
            <id>jboss-public-repository-group</id>
            <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
            <name>JBoss Public Repository Group</name>
            <url>http://repository.jboss.org/nexus/content/groups/public</url>
        </mirror>
 
        <!--<mirror>
            <id>alimaven</id>
            <name>aliyun maven</name>
            <url>http://maven.aliyun.com/nexus/content/groups/public/</url>
            <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
        </mirror>
        <mirror>
            <id>ibiblio</id>
            <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
            <name>Human Readable Name for this Mirror.</name>
            <url>http://mirrors.ibiblio.org/pub/mirrors/maven2/</url>
        </mirror>
        <mirror>
            <id>central</id>
            <name>Maven Repository Switchboard</name>
            <url>http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/</url>
            <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
        </mirror>
        <mirror>
            <id>repo2</id>
            <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
            <name>Human Readable Name for this Mirror.</name>
            <url>http://repo2.maven.org/maven2/</url>
        </mirror>-->
 
    </mirrors>
 
    <!-- profiles
     | This is a list of profiles which can be activated in a variety of ways, and which can modify
     | the build process. Profiles provided in the settings.xml are intended to provide local machine-
     | specific paths and repository locations which allow the build to work in the local environment.
     |
     | For example, if you have an integration testing plugin - like cactus - that needs to know where
     | your Tomcat instance is installed, you can provide a variable here such that the variable is
     | dereferenced during the build process to configure the cactus plugin.
     |
     | As noted above, profiles can be activated in a variety of ways. One way - the activeProfiles
     | section of this document (settings.xml) - will be discussed later. Another way essentially
     | relies on the detection of a system property, either matching a particular value for the property,
     | or merely testing its existence. Profiles can also be activated by JDK version prefix, where a
     | value of '1.4' might activate a profile when the build is executed on a JDK version of '1.4.2_07'.
     | Finally, the list of active profiles can be specified directly from the command line.
     |
     | NOTE: For profiles defined in the settings.xml, you are restricted to specifying only artifact
     |       repositories, plugin repositories, and free-form properties to be used as configuration
     |       variables for plugins in the POM.
     |
     |-->
    <profiles>
        <!-- profile
         | Specifies a set of introductions to the build process, to be activated using one or more of the
         | mechanisms described above. For inheritance purposes, and to activate profiles via <activatedProfiles/>
         | or the command line, profiles have to have an ID that is unique.
         |
         | An encouraged best practice for profile identification is to use a consistent naming convention
         | for profiles, such as 'env-dev', 'env-test', 'env-production', 'user-jdcasey', 'user-brett', etc.
         | This will make it more intuitive to understand what the set of introduced profiles is attempting
         | to accomplish, particularly when you only have a list of profile id's for debug.
         |
         | This profile example uses the JDK version to trigger activation, and provides a JDK-specific repo.
        <profile>
          <id>jdk-1.4</id>
          <activation>
            <jdk>1.4</jdk>
          </activation>
          <repositories>
            <repository>
              <id>jdk14</id>
              <name>Repository for JDK 1.4 builds</name>
              <url>http://www.myhost.com/maven/jdk14</url>
              <layout>default</layout>
              <snapshotPolicy>always</snapshotPolicy>
            </repository>
          </repositories>
        </profile>
        -->
        <profile>
            <id>jdk18</id>
            <activation>
                <jdk>1.8</jdk>
                <activeByDefault>true</activeByDefault>
            </activation>
            <properties>
                <maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
                <maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
                <maven.compiler.compilerVersion>1.8</maven.compiler.compilerVersion>
            </properties>
        </profile>
 
        <!--
         | Here is another profile, activated by the system property 'target-env' with a value of 'dev',
         | which provides a specific path to the Tomcat instance. To use this, your plugin configuration
         | might hypothetically look like:
         |
         | ...
         | <plugin>
         |   <groupId>org.myco.myplugins</groupId>
         |   <artifactId>myplugin</artifactId>
         |
         |   <configuration>
         |     <tomcatLocation>${tomcatPath}</tomcatLocation>
         |   </configuration>
         | </plugin>
         | ...
         |
         | NOTE: If you just wanted to inject this configuration whenever someone set 'target-env' to
         |       anything, you could just leave off the <value/> inside the activation-property.
         |
        <profile>
          <id>env-dev</id>
          <activation>
            <property>
              <name>target-env</name>
              <value>dev</value>
            </property>
          </activation>
          <properties>
            <tomcatPath>/path/to/tomcat/instance</tomcatPath>
          </properties>
        </profile>
        -->
    </profiles>
 
    <!-- activeProfiles
     | List of profiles that are active for all builds.
     |
    <activeProfiles>
      <activeProfile>alwaysActiveProfile</activeProfile>
      <activeProfile>anotherAlwaysActiveProfile</activeProfile>
    </activeProfiles>
    -->
</settings>
 

谈一谈Maven

Maven三大特性:

  • 依赖
  • 仓库
  • 插件

1、依赖

  • 如下因素:
  • groupId
  • artifactId
  • version
    第一部分,pom文件第一个配置内容版本:
 <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<groupId>org.springframework.samples</groupId>
	<artifactId>com.xcxyz.lxc</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>war</packaging>
  • 特别说明:<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    第一个数字是总版本号-----框架的变动eg:struts1-----struts2
    第二个数字是分支版本号----增加了哪些功能
    第三个数字是小版本号-----修复了某些bug
    第四个-里程碑版本-----快照版本(开发SNAPSHOT)
    -------测试版本----beta(公测版本)----release、bundle(可以使用)----GA(商用)
    0.0.1-SNAPSHOT----0.0.1release----1.0.0SNAPSHOT
    -------0.1.0SNAPSHOT—0.1.0release-1.1.0SNAPSHOT
    scope—runtime–运行
    compile–默认
    test–测试

1.1依赖的特性:

  • 如果同时依赖的话路径最短为主依赖
  • 如果路径相同,则第一次依赖的为主依赖
  • 依赖中出现冲突,则可以在自己依赖中排出依赖,举例如下:
<!-- SPRING begin -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
			<version>${spring.version}</version>
			<exclusions>
				<exclusion>
					<groupId>commons-logging</groupId>
					<artifactId>commons-logging</artifactId>
				</exclusion>
			</exclusions>
		</dependency>

1.2聚合打包

<packaging>pom</packaging>
	<url>http://maven.apache.org</url>

	<modules>
		<module>Common</module>
		<module>Service</module>
		<module>Facade</module>
		<module>Web</module>
	</modules>

1.3继承`

<parent>
		<groupId>org.base</groupId>
		<artifactId>Base</artifactId>
		<version>1.1.0</version>
	</parent>

1.4relativePath是父类pom.xml的相对路径
1.5父类里面dependencyManager

  • 子类可以选择继承dependency

2、仓库

2.1私有仓库:

  • nexus安装:

2.2host的仓库

  • Release:内部的模块中release的发布仓库
  • SNAPSHOT:内部开发快照版本仓库
  • 3rd Party:第三方仓库----内部开发人员下载下来发布上去。
  • -----proxy的仓库,从远程仓库中获取数据的仓库。
  • -----group主仓库----方便开发人员来进行设置

3、插件

  • 可以内置多个插件例如tomcat服务器,数据库等等。
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